Written by Ulises Gascón

Apr 08, 20202 min read

The attack

The attacker wants you to click something that you don’t actually want to click, and they do it by hiding the link/button behind something else that they can trick you into clicking on.

Clickjacking can be used to get you to click anything you don’t want to. These things include unintentional endorsements on social networks, clicking advertisements, and if it’s very clever, tricking you into doing more complex things.

The header

The X-Frame-Options header tells browsers to prevent your webpage from being put in an iframe. When browsers load iframes, they’ll check the value of the X-Frame-Options header and abort loading if it’s not allowed.

The header has three options:

  • DENY will prevent anyone from putting this page in an iframe.
  • SAMEORIGIN will prevent anyone from putting this page in an iframe unless it’s on the same origin. That generally means that you can put your own pages in iframes, but nobody else can.
  • ALLOW-FROM will allow to put your page in an iframe, but nobody else. See: limited support

The code

If you aren’t expecting your pages to be put in iframes, setting this to DENY or SAMEORIGIN is probably a good idea because it limits your page’s attack surface.

const helmet = require('helmet')

// Don't allow me to be in ANY frames.
// Sets "X-Frame-Options: DENY".
app.use(helmet.frameguard({ action: 'deny' }))

// Only let me be framed by people of the same origin.
// Sets "X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN".
app.use(helmet.frameguard({ action: 'sameorigin' }))
app.use(helmet.frameguard())  // defaults to sameorigin

// Allow from a specific host.
// Sets "X-Frame-Options: ALLOW-FROM".
// Note that browser support for this option is low!
  action: 'allow-from',
  domain: ''